Quantitative of GMAT level 4 part 1

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Question 1.

In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.

(A)

psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,

(B)

psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and

(C)

psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size,

(D)

psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size,

(E)

psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,

Question 2.

Manufacturers rate batteries in watt-hours; if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer the battery can be expected to last.

(A)

if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer

(B)

rating the watt-hour higher, it is that much longer

(C)

the higher the watt-hour rating, the longer

(D)

the higher the watt-hour rating, it is that much longer that

(E)

when the watt-hour rating is higher, the longer it is

Question 3.

Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.

(A)

have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally

(B)

raised hopes for there being a recovery finally

(C)

had raised hopes for a recovery finally being

(D)

has raised hopes that a recovery is finally

(E)

raised hopes for a recovery finally

Question 4.

At the end of the 1930s, Duke Ellington was looking for a composer to assist him—someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish the many pieces he had started but never completed.

(A)

someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style as well in order to finish

(B)

someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but also mirror his eccentric writing style in order to finish

(C)

someone who not only could arrange music for his successful big band, but also to mirror his eccentric writing style in finishing

(D)

that being someone who could not only arrange music for his successful big band, but mirroring his eccentric writing style for finishing

(E)

being someone not only who could arrange music for his successful big band, but mirror his eccentric writing style as well, finishing

Question 5.

Of all the vast tides of migration that have swept through history, maybe none is more concentrated as the wave that brought 12 million immigrants onto American shores in little more than three decades.

(A)

maybe none is more concentrated as

(B)

it may be that none is more concentrated as

(C)

perhaps it is none that is more concentrated than

(D)

maybe it is none that was more concentrated than

(E)

perhaps none was more concentrated than

Question 6.

Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.

(A)

ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only

(B)

rank as the nation’s third leading cause of death, only surpassed

(C)

has the rank of the nation’s third leading cause of death, only surpassed

(D)

are the nation’s third leading causes of death, surpassed only

(E)

have been ranked as the nation’s third leading causes of death, only surpassed

Question 7.

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

(A)

having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it

(B)

having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they

(C)

with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists’ assuming that they

(D)

with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists’ assuming that it

(E)

with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

Question 8.

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.

(A)

due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing

(B)

due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize

(C)

because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize

(D)

because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize

(E)

because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

Question 9.

In 1979 lack of rain reduced India’s rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than those of the 1978 harvest.

(A)

less than those of the 1978 harvest

(B)

less than the 1978 harvest

(C)

less than 1978

(D)

fewer than 1978

(E)

fewer than that of India’s 1978 harvest

Question 10.

The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A)

that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding

(B)

that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding

(C)

that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded

(D)

the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding

(E)

the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding

Question 11.

Like the idolization accorded the Brontës and Brownings, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf are often subjected to the kind of veneration that blurs the distinction between the artist and the human being.

(A)

Like the idolization accorded the Brontës and Brownings,

(B)

As the Brontës’ and Brownings’ idolization,

(C)

Like that accorded to the Brontës and Brownings,

(D)

As it is of the Brontës and Brownings,

(E)

Like the Brontës and Brownings,

Question 12.

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.

(A)

Which kept

(B)

that keeps

(C)

which has kept

(D)

that has been keeping

(E)

having kept

Question 13.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A)

the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

(B)

forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

(C)

having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

(D)

to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

(E)

that bricks were formed from mud or clay,which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Question 14.

Rising inventories, when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead to production cutbacks that would hamper economic growth.

(A)

when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead

(B)

when not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, possibly leads

(C)

when they were unaccompanied by corresponding sales increases, can lead

(D)

if not accompanied by correspondingly increased sales, possibly leads

(E)

if not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, can lead

Question 15.

Many experts regarded the large increase in credit card borrowing in March not as a sign that households were pressed for cash and forced to borrow, rather a sign of confidence by households that they could safely handle new debt.

(A)

rather a sign of confidence by households that they could safely

(B)

yet as a sign of households’ confidence that it was safe for them to

(C)

but a sign of confidence by households that they could safely

(D)

but as a sign that households were confident they could safely

(E)

but also as a sign that households were confident in their ability safely to

Question 16.

A surge in new home sales and a drop in weekly unemployment claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought.

(A)

claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought

(B)

claims suggests that the economy might not be so weak as some analysts have previously thought

(C)

claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as have been previously thought by some analysts

(D)

claims, suggesting about the economy that it might not be so weak as previously thought by some analysts

(E)

claims, suggesting the economy might not be as weak as previously thought to be by some analysts

Question 17.

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A)

are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

(B)

are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

(C)

appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

(D)

appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

(E)

appear as dark spots on the Sun’s surface, which have never been sighted on

Question 18.

Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedures, institute new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning.

(A)

creating a special nongovernment organization to take

(B)

creating a special nongovernment organization that takes

(C)

creating a special nongovernment organization for taking

(D)

and create a special nongovernment organization for taking

(E)

and create a special nongovernment organization to take

Question 19.

A pioneer journalist, Nellie Bly’s exploits included circling the globe faster than Jules Verne’s fictional Phileas Fogg.

(A)

A pioneer journalist, Nellie Bly’s exploits included

(B)

The exploits of Nellie Bly, a pioneer journalist, included

(C)

Nellie Bly was a pioneer journalist including in her exploits the

(D)

Included in the pioneer journalist Nellie Bly’s exploits are

(E)

The pioneer journalist’s exploits of Nellie Bly included

Question 20.

Retail sales rose 0.8 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

(A)

that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of

(B)

that personal spending in the July–September quarter would more than double

(C)

of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D)

of personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubling that of

(E)

of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Question 21.

The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word “natural” to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

(A)

or nothing that has been

(B)

or that has been

(C)

and nothing that is

(D)

or anything that has been

(E)

and anything

Question 22.

Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars.

(A)

Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi,

(B)

Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than fungi,

(C)

Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon,

(D)

Plants, more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon,

(E)

Plants acquire carbon more efficiently than fungi,

Question 23.

The Iroquois were primarily planters, but supplementing their cultivation of maize, squash, and beans with fishing and hunting.

(A)

but supplementing

(B)

and had supplemented

(C)

and even though they supplemented

(D)

although they supplemented

(E)

but with supplementing

Question 24.

As contrasted with the honeybee, the yellow jacket can sting repeatedly without dying and carries a potent venom that can cause intense pain.

(A)

As contrasted with the honeybee,

(B)

In contrast to the honeybee’s,

(C)

Unlike the sting of the honeybee,

(D)

Unlike that of the honeybee,

(E)

Unlike the honeybee,

Question 25.

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

(A)

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

(B)

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

(C)

Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are

(D)

Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

(E)

Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

Question 26.

Tropical bats play important roles in the rain forest ecosystem, aiding in the dispersal of cashew, date, and fig seeds; pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce tequila by pollinating agave plants.

(A)

pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help produce

(B)

pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly helping to produce

(C)

pollinating banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and they indirectly help to produce

(D)

they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; and indirectly help producing

(E)

they pollinate banana, breadfruit, and mango trees; indirectly helping the producing of

Question 27.

None of the attempts to specify the causes of crimeexplains why most of the people exposed to the alleged causes do not commit crimes and, conversely, why so many of those not so exposed have.

(A)

have

(B)

has

(C)

shall

(D)

do 

(E)

could

Question 28.

In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of enzymes that are the organism’s trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it.

(A)

trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it

(B)

trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

(C)

attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical irritant

(D)

attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating it

(E)

attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

Question 29.

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

(A)

Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering

(B)

Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

(C)

Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering

(D)

Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s  death in 1886, and outnumbering

(E)

Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

Question 30.

Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

(A)

at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of

(B)

as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of

(C)

that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

(D)

to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of

(E)

as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

Question 31.

Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another.

(A)

Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were

(B)

Although many of her colleagues were of the conviction of genes being

(C)

Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced that genes were

(D)

Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were

(E)

Even with many of her colleagues convinced of genes being

Question 32.

Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics, would appear the same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly through the water as a person standing on land.

(A)

water as a

(B)

water as to a

(C)

water; just as it would to a

(D)

water, as it would to the

(E)

water; just as to the

Question 33.

Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

(A)

Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging,

(B)

Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply,

(C)

Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply,

(D)

Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply,

(E)

Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging,

Question 34.

Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it can broaden its membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store and exhibit its more than 12,000 artifacts.

(A)

if it can broaden its membership and leave

(B)

whether it can broaden its membership and leave

(C)

whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave

(D)

its ability for broadening its membership and leaving

(E)

the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave

Question 35.

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

(A)

and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be

(B)

earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be

(C)

earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

(D)

earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were

(E)

earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Question 36.

Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession.

(A)

like it is indicative that

(B)

as if to indicate

(C)

to indicate that

(D)

indicative of

(E)

like an indication of

Question 37.

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier’s pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.

(A)

22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become

(B)

22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become

(C)

22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being

(D)

22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was

(E)

22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

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